In short, Autonomy means to have the capability to decide for yourself how to plan and prioritise your work. It also means to be able to take your own initiatives without having someone else planning everything for you. Autonomy is very important when it comes to motivation, goal- setting, and achievements. 

Here is an example of a question in Winningtemp that measures autonomy:

Are you able to decide how you are going to distribute your time during a normal workday?

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